英语翻译交流-中国古塔塔是佛教中的建筑物，早是用来保存佛教创始人释迦牟尼的舍利的。在释迦牟尼去世以后，弟子将其火花，火化后遗留下的结晶物便称为“舍利”。在佛教的思想观念中，舍利被看作是佛教徒修成正果的象征，拜见佛陀舍利就如同拜见了佛陀真身。古印度人为了埋葬舍利，便建筑了“Stupa”（窣堵坡）。这就是早的佛塔，其形状类似于倒扣着的钵盂。据说佛塔的这种形状源自于这样一个故事：佛祖的弟子问佛祖：我们怎样才能真正表达对您的虔诚呢？佛祖沉思片刻，没有说话，只是将身上的袈裟铺在了地上，然后又将手持的钵盂倒扣在袈裟上，后将禅杖立于覆钵之上。后来佛祖逝世了，为了安放佛祖的舍利，弟子们开始建造坟墓。在建造时，按照佛祖生前的暗示将他的坟墓建成方基、覆钵、尖顶的形状。方基象征佛祖的袈裟，中间覆钵形的坟冢象征倒扣的钵盂，上部高高树立的尖顶则象征着佛祖的禅杖。后来由于佛塔大量兴建，而“舍利”的数量又有限，于是人们便将佛陀的遗物或象征物如头发、衣服等物品作为“舍利”的替代物放置于塔中供奉。Pagodas were Buddhist buildings originally built for the purpose of preserving the relics of Sakyamuni, the founder of Buddhism. After Buddha Sakyamuni’s death, his disciples had his remains cremated, and the crystals left behind after the cremation is referred to as “sarira”. In the Buddhist ideas and concepts, the Buddha sarira are considered to be symbols of attaining consummation and becoming a Buddha. To pay homage to the sarira is the same as paying homage to Buddha Sakyamuni himself.The ancient Indians built the stupa(pogoda) to burry the sarira. This was the oldest stupa and its shape was similar to a flipped monk’s alms bowl. It is said that this form of the stupa came from a story: One day, Sakyamuni’s disciples asked him how they would truly express their devotion to him. Buddha Sakyamuni thought for a moment, but did not answer. He simply spread his robe on the ground, then turned the handheld alms bowl upside down on the robe, at the end he had the Buddhist monk’s staff standing on the bowl. Later, Buddha Sakyamuni passedaway. This disciples began to construct a tomb in order to place his relics. According to Sakyamuni’s hint before his death, his tomb was built upturned-bowl shape with a square base at the bottom and a pinnacle on the top. The square base symbolized the Buddha’s robe; the upturned alms bowl-shape tomb in the middle symbolized the bowl; the pinnacle at the top symbolized the monk’s staff.Since then, a great number of pagodas had been built, but the number of sarira was limited, so people had Sakyamuni’s relics or symbols such as hair, clothing and other items as substitutes placed in the pagoda for worship.
天津英语翻译交流-中医之精、气、神练武术的人常说：“内练精气神，外练筋骨皮”。在中国传统文化里，对于精、气、神的修炼远远要比对于筋骨皮的修炼高明得多，也难得多。在中医里，精、气、神的概念也是非常重要而又复杂的。People who practice martial arts always say, “Practice the inner essence, qi and spirit, and practice the outer sinew, bone and skin.” In traditional Chinese culture, the practice of essence, qi and spirit is far more brilliant abut also way too difficult than the practice of sinew, bone and skin. While in traditional Chinese medicine, the concepts of essence, qi and spirit are also very important as well as complicated.气是构成万物的最基本物质。中医里“气”字用得很广泛，有元气、正气、邪气、营气、卫气、脏腑之气、经络之气……人体的气有三个来源：来源于父母的先天之气，也就是贮藏在肾中的精气；来源于脾胃的水谷之气，也就是后天摄入的营养；来源于天地的呼吸之气，也就是肺吸入的氧气。这些气组成了人体的气，并且不断运动变化，中医把气的运动称为“气机”。气在不同的脏腑，表现出不同的功能。气流布全身各处，走到脏腑就叫“脏腑之气”，至血脉内外则称“营卫之气”。气的“升降出入”运动失常，称为“气机不调”。Qi is the most essential substance that constitutes all things on earth. The word “qi’ is widely used in the traditional Chinese medicine. There is source qi, healthy qi, evil qi, nutritive qi, defense qi, organ qi, channel qi…… There are three sources of qi of human body: the prenatal qi acquired from parents, that is the essential qi stored in the kidney; the grain and water qi coming from the spleen and stomach, that is the qi transformed from the nutrients taken; and the breathing qi from the heaven and earth, that is the qi transformed from the fresh air inhaled in the lung. These qis form the qi of human body and are in constant motion and variation. The motion of qi is called “functioning of qi” in traditional Chinese medicine. Qi performs different functions in different viscera. It flows everywhere in the body: when it flows into viscera, it is called “organ qi”; when it flows inside and outside of the blood vessel, it is called “nutritive and defense qi”; when it flows to the channels, it is called “channel qi”. The disorder of the “upbearing, downbearing, inward and outward movement” of qi is called”misfunctioning of qi”气聚而成形则称之为“精”，类似于现在所说的物质。而“神”则代表了人的精神、思维、意识活动，这种活动也是气的运动变化的结果。换句话说，精和神都是气的表现形式，只不过一个有形，一个无形。When qi gathers and takes shape, it forms into “essence”, which is similar to the substance we say now. The “spirit” represents people’s spirit, vitality and mental activities, and these activities are also the results of qi’s motion and variation. In other words, both essence and spirit are manifestations of qi; only that one has form and the other is formless.中医常说养气，练气，就是通过一些具体的方法，调整身体里的气的运动，从而达到阴阳调和，精充神旺的目的。Nourishing and practicing qi, which is often mentioned in TCM, means to adjust the qi’s motion in the body through some specific ways, so as to achieve the yin-yang harmony and a vigorous spirit.
天津英语翻译交流-中医阴阳从人体的结构来说，人体的上部为阳，下部为阴；体表为阳，体内为阴；背为阳，腹为阴；四肢的外侧为阳，内侧为阴。在人体的脏腑中，心、肝、脾、肺、肾五脏贮藏精气，属阴。大肠、小肠、胆、胃、膀胱、三焦六腑是传导的通路，不藏精气，属阳。From the perspective of human body morphology, the upper part of the body is called yang and the lower part yin; the surface is called yang and the internal yin; back is called yang and belly yin; the lateral side of limbs is call yang and the medial side of limbs yin; the five internal visceras storing energy qi are called yin and six hollow-organs transmitting qi, are called yang.五行就是木、火、土、金、水五种物质的运动变化。木的特性为生长、舒畅；火的特性为温热、升腾；土的特性为：生化、承载、受纳；金的特性为：清洁、肃降、收敛；水的特性为：寒凉、滋润、向下运动。五行的交互作用是：一种物质对其他物质具有的促进、滋生作用称为“相生”，对其他物质具有抑制和制约作用称为“相克”。五行相生的关系：木生火，火生土，土生金，金生水，水生木。五行相克的关系是：木克土，土克水，水克火，火克金，金克木。The Five-Element Theory talks about the movement and transformation of five elements which are Wood, Fire, Earth, Metal and Water.Characteristics of Wood: growing, developing and relaxing; Characteristics of Fire: warm and uprising; Characteristics of Earth: generating, bearing and accepting; Characteristics of Metal: clean, pure and contracting; Characteristics of Water: cold, nourishing, moistening and descendant. These five elements interact with each other: the interaction that one element promotes and breeds another is called “generating” and one restrains and restricts another is called “overcoming”.Generating: Wood feeds Fire; Fire creates Earth; Earth bears Metal; Metal carries Water; Water nourished Wood. Overcoming: Wood parts Earth; Metal chops Wood; Fire melts Metal; Water quenches Fire; Earth dams Water.
We are not good at fancy shows. We are just doing something with our heart.